The health systems of developed countries aim to reduce the mortality rates of their populations. To this end, they must fight against the unhealthy habits of citizens, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and sedentarism, since these result in a large number of deaths each year. Our research aims to analyze whether an increase in health resources influences the number of deaths caused by the unhealthy habits of the population. To achieve this objective, a sample containing key indicators of the Spanish health system was analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method. The results show how increasing public health spending and, thus, the resources allocated to healthcare can curb the adverse effects of the population’s unhealthy habits. These results have important implications for theory and practice, demonstrating the need for adequate investment in the healthcare system to reduce mortality among the population.